San Elijo Lagoon Plant Guide Cited References

Note about References Cited: Our sources range from authoritative books and reviewed scientific publications to newspaper articles and blogs. Reference number 100 includes bits of information that were received by way of mouth, information that seems reasonable, but for which we are unable to find a published or electronic source. In all cases, the user must judge the validity of such “facts” for themselves. Where appropriate, a link to an electronic reference will deliver the reader to the home page of that reference, not the specific plant under consideration. This greatly reduces our list of references, and gives the reader a useful entry into a variety of information on plants and plant topics. On the other hand, they must learn to navigate each reference for themselves.


1 : Fillius, M. 2010. Native Plants, Torrey Pines State Reserve and nearby San Diego County Locations. 4th ed. Fillius Interests. San Diego, CA. 296pp.

2 : Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora. [NOTE: direct link to a species is given at bottom of the Classification tab of that species]

3 : Valois, T. 2012. Wildflowers of the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, with UCLA Descriptions. National Park Service and Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area.

4 : Prigge, B. A, and A. C. Gibson. 2013. A Naturalist’s Flora of the Santa Monica Mountains and Simi Hills, California, Web Version, included in Wildflowers of the SMMNRA

5 : Fire Effects Information System. Accessed 2013. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.

6 : Westman, W. E. 1981. Seasonal dimorphism of foliage in California coastal sage scrub. Oecologia 51: 385-388.

7 : Calflora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation (web application). First accessed 2013. The Calflora Database. Berkeley, California.

8 : Lightner, J. 2011. San Diego County Native Plants. 3rd ed. San Diego Flora. San Diego, CA.

9 : Sawyer, J. O., T. Keeler-Wolf, and J. M. Evans. 2009. A Manual of California Vegetation. California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA.

10 : CNPS List of Vegetation Types Described in A Manual of California Vegetation by Sawyer, Keeler-Wolf and Evens (2009);

11 : Clarke, O. F., D. Svehla, G. Ballmer, and A. Montalvo. 2007. Flora of the Santa Ana River and Environs with Reference to World Botany. Heyday Books. Berkeley, CA.

12 : Poole, D. K., and P. C. Miller. 1975. Water relations of selected species of chaparral and coastal sage communities. Ecology 56: 1118-1128.

13 : Westman, W. E. 1982. Coastal sage scrub succession. Gen Tech. Rep. PSW-58. Berkeley, CA: Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Forest Service, U. S. Dept. Agriculture.….

14 : Halsey, R. W. 2005. Fire, Chaparral, and Survival in Southern California. Sunbelt Publishers. San Diego, CA.

15 : Timbrook, J. 2007. Chumash Ethnobotany. Heyday Books. Berkeley, CA.

16 : Shipek, F. C. 1991. Delfina Cuero. Ballena Press. Menlo Park, CA.

17 : Crouthamel, S. J. 2009. Luiseño Ethnobotany.

18 : Fortier, J. 2006. Native American Consultation and Ethnographic Study with Kumeyaay along Highway 94, City of San Diego.

19 : Reiser, C. H. 1994. Rare Plants of San Diego County. of June 2016, this link has been removed)

20 : Shenkman, H. Accessed 2012. Sea Dahlia. Naturebytes Video.

21 : Charters, M. L. Accessed 2013. California plant names; a Dictionary of Botanical and Biographical Etymology.

22 : Russo, R. 2006. Field Guide to Plant Galls of California and other Western States. U. California Press. Berkeley, CA

23 : Dale, N. 1986. Flowering Plants; the Santa Monica Mountains, Coastal & Chaparral Regions of Southern California. Capra Press. Santa Barbara, CA.

24 : Bornstein, C., D. Fross and B. O’Brien. 2005. California Native Plants for the Garden. Cachuma Press. Los Olivos, CA.

25 : West Tisbury School. 2019. Blue Planet Biomes, Chaparral Biome. Note: This cite evolved from a 6th grade class project at the West Tisbury School , West Tisbury, Mass.. The information is good and the perspective sometimes unique.

26 : Charters, M. L. Accessed 2013. Wildflowers and other Plants of Southern California.

27 : Quinn, R. D. and S. C. Keeley. 2006. Introduction to California chaparral. California Natural History Guides Series 90. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA.

28 : Merwin, H. 2007. Sea Beans: Much More than a Weird, Random Vegetable. Gothamist.

29 : Dusoulier, C. 2007. Salicorne. Chocolate & Zucchini.

30 : Dickerson, M. July 10, 2008. Letting the Sea Cultivate the Land. Los Angeles Times.

31 : Halophytes and Xerohalophytes. Accessed 2012. University of California, Los Angeles. College of Life Sciences.…. . Note: As of Jan, 2020, this site has been reconfigured and all files are not yet on line. The new .url is expected to be

32 : Nicol, Hank. 1981. Notes from The Naturalist. Torrey Pines Docent Society.

33 : Sullivan, R. and J. Eaton. 2007. Toyon’s colorful berries mark Christmas and provide winter fodder. San Francisco Chronicle.

34 : De Ruff, R. Plants of Upper Newport Bay.…

35 : Santa Monica Mountains Trail Council. Plant of the Month, archives.

36 : Rundel, P. W. 1986. Structure and Function in California chaparral. Fremontia, 14(3): 3-10. California Native Plant Society.…

37 : Information from the Kumeyaay-Ipai Interpretive Center at Pauwai, Poway, CA.

38 : Hellmers, H., J. S. Horton, G. Juhren, J. O’Keefe. 1955. Root systems of some chaparral plants in Southern California. Ecology, 36(4): 667-678.

39 : Concepts in Biology; Introduction to the Chaparral. Biological Sciences, Santa Barbara City College; Biology 100. 2010.

40 : Unitt, P. 2004. San Diego County Bird Atlas. Proceeding of the San Diego Natural History Society no. 39. Ibis Publishing Co.

41 : Wikipedia.

42 : Chester, T. 2004. Plants of Southern California: Stephanomeria virgata: Introduction and Preliminary Conclusions.

43 : Riverside-Corona Resource Conservation District and U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. Plant Materials.    Note: As of Jan. 2020, this site was unavailable.

44 : Charters, M. L. Family descriptions for what’s blooming at the Los Angeles County Arboretum.

45 : California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2013, Inventory of Rare, Threatened and Endangered Plants of California (online edition, v8-02). California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA.

46 : The Nature Conservancy’s Global Invasive Species Team. Accessed 2016. Invasipedia.

47 : Flint, S. D. and I. G. Palmblad. 1978. Germination dimorphism and development flexibility in the ruderal weed Heterotheca grandiflora. Oecologia 36: 33-43.

48 : Plant List for the San Elijo Lagoon Ecological Reserve. Susan Welker, San Diego County Department of Parks and Recreation; augmented by David Varner, Nature Collective.

49 : Conrad, J. Accessed 2013. Composite Flowers. The Backyard Nature Website

50 : Chester, T. and J. Strong. 2007. Plants of Southern California: Salix: Key to willows of coastal southern California below 6000 feet elevation.

51 : Landau, E. 2010. From a tree, a ‘miracle’ called aspirin. CNN. Dec. 22, 2010.

53 : Wright, A. B. 1993. Peterson First Guide: Caterpillars. Houghton Mifflin, NY 128 pp.

54 : Bryant, P. 2013. Inducers, parasitoids, and inquilines: life inside a plant gall. Fremontia 41(3): 14-19. California Native Plant Society.

55 : Animal Science – Plants Poisonous to Livestock, Datura spp. 2013. Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

56 : Stewart, A. 2009. Wicked Plants. The weed that killed Lincoln’s mother and other botanical atrocities. Algonquin Books, Chapel Hill.

57 : Celebrating Wildflowers; Pollinator of the Month. 2013. US Forest Service, USDA.…

58 : Sharp, J. W. Accessed 2013. Datura-Jimson Weed. DesertUSA.

59 : Allen, R. L. and F. M. Roberts. 2013. Wildflowers of Orange County and the Santa Ana Mountains. Laguna Wilderness Press. 498pp.

60 : Dalhousie Collection of Cacti and other Succulents. Accessed Dec. 2013. Dalhousie University. (note: as of July 2016, this material has been removed from the Dalhousie web site.)

61 : Greenfield, A. B. 2006. A Perfect Red. Empire, Espionage and the Quest for the Color of Desire. HarperCollins. 338 pp.

62 : Savio, Y. 1989. Prickly Pear Cactus production. Small Farm Program, University of California.

63 : Jones, C. E. and B. C. Mitchell. 1999. Floral morphological changes and reproductive success in deer weed (Lotus scoparius, Fabaceae). American Journal of Botany 86(2): 273-277.

64 : Weiss, M. R. 1999. Floral colour changes as cues for pollinators. Letters to Nature 354: 227-229

65 : Wildscaping. 2005-2011.

66 : Russell, A. B., J. W. Hardin, L. Grand, and A. Fraser. 1997. Poisonous Plants of North Carolina, North Carolina State University.     Note: As of Jan. 2020, this site was unavailable.

67 : Natural Resources Conservation Service. USDA. Plants Data Base. Accessed 2014. [NOTE: Search for species of interest; look for link to Plant Guide and Fact Sheet]

68 : Poisoning from Elderberry Juice — California. Accessed 2013

69 : Martine, S. L. 2009. The use of Marah macrocarpus by the prehistoric Indians of coastal Southern California. J. Ethnobotany 29(1): 77-93.

70 : Borchert M. 2006. Seed fate of Marah macrocarpus (Cucurbitaceae) following fire: do seedlings recruit from rodent burrows? Ecological Research 21(5):641-650.

71 : Belzer, T. J. 1984. Roadside Plants of Southern California. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula.

72 : Grant, K. A. and V. Grant. 1964. Mechanical isolation of Salvia apiana and Salvia mellifera (Labiatae). Evolution 18: 196-212.

73 : Black sage (Salvia mellifera). Gabbi’s Garden Blog. 2010. McLean, G. NOTE: As of Jan. 2020, this site was no longer available.

74 : International Brugmansia and Datura Society. NOTE: As of Jan 2020, this cite was no longer available.

75 : Campbell, P. D. 1999. Survival skills of Native Californians. Gibbs-Smith, Salt Lake City. 448pp.

76 : Roberts, N. C. 1989. Baja California Plant Field Guide. Natural History Publishing Company, La Jolla. 309 pp.

77 : Native Plant Information. Accessed 2014. Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy.…

78 : Sticky Monkey Flower. Accessed 2014. Presidio of San Francisco.

79 : Plant Profiles. 2014. San Diego Chapter of the California Native Plant Society.

80 : All About Birds. 2011. Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

81 : California Wildflowers. 2009. California Academy of Sciences.

82 : Lankinen, A., W. S. Armbruster and L. Antonsen. 2007. Delayed stigma receptivity in Collinsia Heterophylla (Plantaginaceae): genetic variation and adaptive significance in relation to pollen competition, delayed self-pollination, and mating system evolution. Amer. J. Bot. 94: 113-1192

83 : NPIN: Native Plant Database. The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, University of Texas at Austin.

84 : Albach, D. C., H. M. Meudt and B. Oxelman. 2005. Piecing together the “new” Plantaginaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 92: 297-315.

85 : Allen, T. J., J. P. Brock and J. Glassberg. 2005. Caterpillars in the Field and Garden. Oxford University Press 232 pp.

86 : Bee Pollination. Accessed April 2014.U.S. Forest Service.

87 : Norwich BioScience Institutes. “Landing lights for bumblebees.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 17 November 2010.

88 : Olmsted, R. G. 2002. Whatever happened to the Scrophulariaceae? Fremontia 30(2): 13-35. California Native Plant Society.

89 : Sullivan, S. K. 2014. Wildflower Search.…

90 : Barringer, K. 2013. New combinations in Sairocarpus (Plantaginaceae). Phytoneuron 2013-24: 1-3.

91 : Dana, R. H. Jr. 1840. Two Years Before the Mast. Solis Press, 2014 edition.

92 : Grieve, Mrs. M. 1995-2014. Mrs. Grieve’s “A Modern Herbal”.

93 : Campbell, N. and W. W. Thompson. 1976. The ultrastructure of Frankenia salt glands. Ann. Bot. 40: 681-686.

94 : Rood, S. B., Braatne, J. H. and Hughes, F. M. R. 2003. Ecophysiology of riparian cottonwoods: stream flow dependency, water relations and restoration. Tree Physiology 23: 1113-1124.

95 : Stevens, M. L. 2004. Ethnoecology of selected California wetland plants. Freemontia. 32(4): 7-15.

96 : Benson, Lyman. 1969. The Native Cacti of California. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

97 : Japanese Dodder. Accessed 2014. Contra Costa County Official Website. NOTE: As of Jan 2020, this site not available.

98 : PBS Video. Nature. March 18 2013. What Plants Talk About. Dodder vine sniffs out its prey.

99 : Runyon, J. B., M. C. Mescher, and C. M. De Moraes. 2006. Volatile chemical cues guide host location and selection by parasitic plants. Science, 313: 1964-1967.

100 : Docent Lore. Sometimes “facts” are passed along by knowledgeable teachers in docent training, at San Elijo and elsewhere. These seem reasonable and are included with the caveat that no confirmation in the literature has yet been found.

101 : Hewitt, L. B. and B. C. Moore. 1989. Walking San Diego. The Mountaineers, Seattle, WA.

103 : Las Vegas Wash Coordination Team. 2014. Las Vegas Wash: What is being done? : Wetlands Revegetation.

104 : Tanner, C. C. 2001. Plants as ecosystem engineers in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands. Water Science and Technology, 44:9-17.

105 : The Academy of Natural Sciences. 2010. “Delta bulrush plants could help ease oil spill crisis, botanist says.” ScienceDaily. Science Daily, 29 June 2010.

106 : Ferguson, D. M. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis and relationships in Hydrophyllaceae based on ndhF sequence data. Systematic Botany 23 (3): 253-268.

107 : Moerman, D. E. 2010. Native American Food Plants. An Ethnobotanical Dictionary. Timber Press, Inc., Portland, Oregon.

108 : Munz, P. A. 2003. Introduction to Shore Wildflowers of California, Oregon and Washington. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA.

109 : Ponder, M. V., G. W. Frankie, R. Elkins, K. Frey, R. Coville, M. Schindler, S. Leon Guerrero, J. C. Pawelek, C. Shaffer. 2013. How to attract and maintain pollinators in your garden. UCANR publication # 8498.

110 : Taylor, R. J. 1998. Desert Wildflowers of North America. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula MT.

111 : Zigmond, M. L. 1981. Kawaiisu Ethnobotany. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press

112 : Native to Arizona: Southeastern Arizona Wildflowers and the Plants of the Sonoran Desert. Accessed 2014.

113 : NatureServe. Online Encyclopaedia. Accessed 2014.

114 : New England Wildflower Society, Go Botany. Accessed 2014.

115 : DesertUSA. Desert Plants. Accessed 2014.

116 : Heath F, and H. Clarke. 2004. An Introduction to Southern California Butterflies. Mountain Press Publishing. Missoula, MT

117 : Grahame, A. Accessed 2014. The incredibly useable cattail. Southern Illinois University Carbondale/Ethnobotanical Leaflets.

118 : Texas Beyond History. Cattail, Tule. Accessed 2014. The University of Texas at Austin, College of Liberal Arts.

119 : Beare, P. A. and J. B. Zedler. 1987. Cattail invasion and persistence in a coastal salt marsh: the role of salinity reduction. Estuaries, 10 (2): 165-170.

120 : JoeandZachSurvival. Wild Edibles: Cattail Root, Making the rhizome into flour. Accessed 2011.

121 : Shaw, H. 2013. Cattail Pollen Pasta.

122 : Duffy, K. 1997. The incredible cattail, the super Wal-Mart of the swamp.

123 : Sojda, R. S. and K. L. Solberg. 1993. Management and Control of Cattails. In Waterfowl Management Handbook Fish and Wildlife Leaflet 13.4.13

124 : Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences. 2014. Aquaplant.

125 : Sustainable Grazing on Saline Land. 2006. SALTdeck series.

127 : Information Center for the Environment(ICE), University of California, Davis. Art Shapiro’s Butterfly Site. Accessed 2014.

128 : Learn about Nature; Butterflies. Accessed 2014.

129 : Grass Manual on the Web. Accessed 2014. Utah State University.

130 : Offwell Woodland & Wildlife Trust. Accessed 2014. Grass Identification; Grass Structure

131 : Ayres, D. R., D. R. Strong and P. Baye. 2003. Spartina foliosa (Poaceae) – a common species on the road to rarity? Madrono, 50: 209-213.

132 : Levering, C. A. and W. W. Thomson. 1971. The ultrastructure of the salt gland of Spartina foliosa. Planta, 97: 183-196.

133 : Brusati, E. D. and E. D. Grosholz. 2006. Native and introduced ecosystem engineers produce contrasting effects on estuarine infaunal communities. Biological Invasions, 8: 683-695.

134 : Waterworth, K. Accessed 2015. Characteristics of Hummingbird-Pollinated Flowers. San Francisco Chronicle.…

135 : Mayntz, M. Accessed 2015. Hummingbirds and Pollination.…

136 : Thurston, H. 1999. The World of the Hummingbird. A Sierra Club Book. C&C Offset Printing, Hong Kong. 112pp.

137 : U.S. Forest Service. Accessed 2015. Bird Pollination.

138 : California Native Plant Society San Diego Newsletter, March 2012.…

139 : Isnard, S. and W. K. Silk. 2009. Moving with climbing plants from Charles Darwin’s time into the 21st century. Amer. J. .Bot. 96:1205-1221.

140 : Jaffe, M. J. and A. W. Galston. 1968. The physiology of tendrils. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 19: 417-434.

141 : Malek, E. M. Accessed 2015. The origin of the name Virgin’s Bower. Clematis…

142 : International Clematis Society. Accessed 2015.

143 : Elpel, T. J. Accessed 2015. Wildflowers-and-Weeds.…

144 : University of California. Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. Accessed March 2015.

145 : Miller, J. M. 1978. Phenotypic variation, distribution and relationships of diploid and tetraploid populations of the Claytonia perfoliata complex (Portulacaceae). Systematic Botany, 3: 322-341.

146 : Shaw, Hank. March 7, 2011. Foraging for Miner’s Lettuce, America’s Gift to Salad. The Atlantic.….

147 : Lawrence, G. E. 1966. Ecology of vertebrate animals in relation to chaparral fire in the Sierra Nevada foothills. Ecology, 47:278-291.

148 : Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction and United Stated Department of Agriculture. Accessed 2020. Radish.

149 : History of the Radish. Accessed March 2015.; a collection of awesome information on the web.…

150 : University of California – Riverside. “Researchers Determine Genetic Origin Of California Wild Radish.” ScienceDaily, 19 July 2006.

151 : Stanton, M. L. 1987. Reproductive biology of petal color variants in wild populations of Raphanus sativus: I. pollinator response to color morphs. Amer. J. Bot. 74: 178-187.

152 : Ridley, C. E. and N. C. Ellstrand. 2009. Evolution of enhanced reproduction in the hybrid-derived invasive, California wild radish (Raphanus sativus). Biol. Invasions. 11: 2251-2264.

153 : National Environmental Research Council. Planet Earth Online, 3 July 2009. Root fungi turn rock into soil.

154 : Hegde, S. R., J. D. Nason, J. M. Clegg and N. C. Ellstrand. 2006. The evolution of California’s wild radish has resulted in the extinction of its progenitors. Evolution 60: 1187-1197

155 : St. John, Ted. Accessed 2015. A Practical Guide to Mycorrhiza.

156 : Barthell J. H. and J. M. H. Knops. 1997. Visitation of evening primrose by carpenter bees: evidence of a “mixed” pollination syndrome. The Southwestern Naturalist 42 (1): 86-93.

157 : Balch, S. A., C. B. Mc Kenney, and D. L. Auld. 2003. Evaluation of Gamma-linoleic acid composition of evening primrose (Oenothera) species native to Texas. HortScience 38(4): 595-598.

158 : Crank, E. 1989. One romantic evening The Newsletter of the national wildflower research center 6 (2):4.

159 : Niu, G., Rodriguez, D. S., McKenney C. 2012. Response of selected wildflower species to saline water irrigation. HortScience 47 (9): 1351-1355.

160 : San Elijo Lagoon Conservancy. Accessed 2015. Invasive Plant Field Guide.

161 : Newman, E. I. and P. Reddell, The distribution of mycorrhizas among families of vascular plants. New Phytologist. 106: 745-751.

162 : Brundrett, M. 2008. Accessed 2015. Mycorrhizal Associations, the Web Resource.

163 : Dart, S. R., K. E. Samis, E. Austen and C. G. Eckert. 2012. Broad geographic covariation between floral traits and the mating system in Camissoniopsis cheiranthifolia (Onagraceae): multiple stable mixed mating systems across the species’ range? Annals of Botany 109: 599-611.

164 : Button, L., A. Lopez Villalobos, S. R. Dart and C. G. Eckert. 2012. Reduced petal size and color associated with transitions from outcrossing to selfing in Camissoniopsis cheiranthifolia (Onagraceae). Int. J. Plant. Sci. 173(3): 251-260.

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166 : California Institute for Biodiversity. Cal-Alive. Accessed April 2015, accessed blocked May 2015.

167 : Collins, M. 2000. Dune Plant Adaptations, a lesson plan.

168 : Tree of Life Nursery. Accessed 2015. Plant Information.

169 : las Pilitas Native Plant Nursery. Accessed July 2016.

170 : Keeley, J. E. and S. C. Keeley. 1987. Role of fire in the germination of chaparral herbs and suffrutescents. Madroño, 34: 240-249.

171 : Brouillet, L. 2008. The taxonomy of North American Loti (Fabaceae: Loteae): new names in Acmispon and Hosackia. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 2(1): 387-394.

172 : IUCN Red List. Accessed 2015.International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

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174 : Rundell, P. W, and R. Gustafson. 2005. Introduction to the plant life of southern California. California Natural History Guide Series 85.U. Calif. Press , Berkeley CA.

175 : Boersig, M. R. and R. F. Norris. 1988. Tarweed glands: their value for survival. Freemontia 15: 21-24.…

176 : University of California, Museum of Paleontology.

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179 : Grieve, C. M., Poss, J. A., Grattan, S. R., Shouse, P. J., Lierh, J. H., Zeng, L. 2005. Productivity and mineral nutrition of Limonium species irrigated with saline wastewaters. HortScience 40 (3): 654-658.

180 : Burke, D. 2005. The Complete Burke’s Backyard: the Ultimate Book of Fact Sheets. Murdoch Books. p. 268.

181 : Stapf, O. 1908. Rediscovery of statice arborea and discovery of a new, allied species. Annals of Botany 22 (85):115-116.

182 : Garry Oak Ecosystem Recovery Team. 2015. Species at Risk.

183 : California Invasive Plant Council. California Invasive Plant Inventory Data Base. Accessed 2015.

184 : Landis, Frank. 2014. Conservation versus (?) invasive species (?). CNPS newletter. August 2014.

185 : Nickrent, D.L. and Musselman, L.J. 2004. Introduction to Parasitic Flowering Plants. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2004-0330-01 Updated 2010.…

186 : Kedzbylski. Accessed 2015, Parasitic Plants.

187 : Washburn, L. 2014. Genetic structure of native and outplanted populations of Hazardia orcuttii (A. Gray) Greene in San Diego County based on ISSRs. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden (prepared for USFWS)

188 : San Diego Botanic Garden. Gardens. Endangered Plants.

189 : Clark, W. D. 1979. The taxonomy of Hazardia (Compositae: Astereae), Madroño 26(3): 105-127

190 : Oberbauer, T. 1981. Hazardia orcuttii (Gray) Greene (Compositae). Madroño 28(1): 38.

191 : Theobald, M. M. 2012. Putting the Red in Red Coats. C W Journal. Summer 2012.…

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194 : Monarch Lab. Accessed Sept 2015. Interactions with Milkweed. University of Minnesota Extension, Department of Fisheries, Wildlife & Conservation Biology…

195 : Nancy. 2014. Monarchs want YOU to plant milkweed: Butterfly-friendly plants for sale at HMNS. Beyond Bones. The Houston Museum of Natural Science.

196 : Brooker, M. I. H., A. V. Slee, J. R. Connors and S.M. Duffy. 2002. Eucalypts of Southern Australia. Euclid, 2nd ed. On-line sample. CSIRO.

197 : Johnston, B. A Close-up View of Eucalyptus Tree Flowers.…

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199 : Perry, R.C. 2010. Landscape Plants of California Gardens. Land Design Publishing. Claremont, CA. 652 pp.

200 : Walker, D. and S. Brigham. 2003. Ornamental Trees of San Diego. San Diego Horticultural Society, Encinitas CA. 136 pp.

201 : Blocker, J. 2012. Growing Grounds. Bean Men Ride Road to Riches. San Diego Floral Association. Mar/Apr 2012. G

202 : CABI. Accessed 2015. Invasive Species Compendium. Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International. Wallingford, UK.

203 : Potts, B. and P. Gore. 1995. Reproductive Biology and controlled pollination of Eucalyptus – a review.…/Potts_and_Gore_reproductive_biology_manual.pdf

204 : Crawford, R. 2008. Eucalyptus Trees have deep roots in California’s history. U-T San Diego, Aug. 31, 2008.…    NOTE: As of Jan,2020, this site was unavailable.

205 : SelecTree, accessed Oct 2015.

206 : San Marcos Growers. 2001. Plant Data Base.

207 : City of Encinitas, Planning and Building Dept. 2014. Invasive Plant Policy. C029

208 : Rowe, C. T. Accessed 2015. Herbe Rowe.

209 : California Poison Control System. 2009. KNOW YOUR PLANTS. University of California San Francisco, School of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Pharmacy…

210 : Harder, L. D. and P. Prusinkiewicz. 2013. The interplay between influorescence development and function as the crucible of architectural diversity. Annals of Botany, 112(8): 1477-1493.

211 : Willmer, P.G. and K. Finlayson. 2014. Big bees do a better job: intraspecific size variation influences pollination effectiveness. Journal of Pollination Ecology, 14(23): 244-254.

212 : Wigand, J. 2004. Take Pride in a sprawling giant: Madeira. SignOnSanDiego, Union-Tribune.    NOTE: As of Jan. 2020, this site no longer available.

213 : University of Maryland Medical Center. 2016.

214 : Editors of Sunset Magazine. 1995. Western Garden Book. Sunset Publishing, Menlo Park, CA. 624 pp.

215 : Nova Scotia Museum. Accessed 2015. The Poison Plant Patch.

216 : Flanigan, A. Accessed 2015. Crotin Plants and Cats. SF Gate, Home Guides.

217 : The Trustees of Indiana University. 2015. A Moment of Science. Indiana Public Media.

218 : Berry, P E. 2001. The Croton Research Networkt. University of Wisconsin   NOTE: As of Jan. 2020, this site was no longer available.

219 : Hinton, Leanne. 1975. Notes on La Huerta Diegueño Ethnobotany. Journal of California Ethnobotany, 2: 214-222.

220 : Science Learning. Accessed 2015. Fern reproductive cycle, video. Science Learning Hub ©2007-2015 The University of Waikato.

221 : Machol, G. K. 2004. From spore to sporeling: the birth of a fern. Freemontia 32: 10-15.

222 : The American Fern Society. A Brief Introduction to Ferns.

223 : The University of Pennsylvania School of Arts and Sciences. Fern Structure and Reproduction.

224 : Jennifer Frazer, Dec. 31, 2014. Wonderful Things: Ferns Eject Their Spores with Medieval-Style Catapults. Scientific American…

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